The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2023 , Vol 65 , Num 4
Pattern of hereditary renal tubular disorders in Egyptian children
Mohamed A. M. Osman 1 ,Ghada A. B. Abd-Elrehim 1 ,Elsayed Abdelkreem 1 ,Mostafa M. Abosdera 1 ,Mohamed A. Kassem 1
1 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2022.688 Background. Hereditary renal tubular disorders (HRTD) represent a group of genetic diseases characterized by disturbances in fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base homeostasis. There is a paucity of studies on pediatric HRTD in Egypt. In this study, we aimed to study the pattern, characteristics, and growth outcome of HRTD at an Egyptian medical center.

Methods. This study included children from one month to < 18-years of age with HRTD who were diagnosed and followed up at the Pediatric Nephrology Unit of Sohag University Hospital from January 2015 to December 2021. Data on patients` demographics, clinical features, growth profiles, and laboratory characteristics were collected.

Results. Fifty-eight children (57% males; 72% parental consanguinity; 60% positive family history) were diagnosed with seven HRTD types. The most commonly encountered disorders were distal renal tubular acidosis (distal renal tubular acidosis [RTA] 27 cases, 46.6%) and Bartter syndrome (16 cases 27.6%). Other identified disorders were Fanconi syndrome (6 cases with cystinosis), isolated proximal RTA (4 cases), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (3 cases), and one case for each RTA type IV and Gitelman syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 17 months with a variable diagnostic delay. The most common presenting features were failure to thrive (91.4%), developmental delay (79.3%), and dehydration episodes (72.4%). Most children showed marked improvement in growth parameters in response to appropriate management, except for cases with Fanconi syndrome. Last, only one case (with cystinosis) developed end-stage kidney disease.

Conclusions. HRTD (most commonly distal RTA and Bartter syndrome) could be relatively common among Egyptian children, and the diagnosis seems challenging and often delayed. Keywords : renal tubular disorders, renal tubular acidosis, Bartter syndrome, failure to thrive, dehydration

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