The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2022 , Vol 64 , Num 2
Developing growth reference charts for the head circumference of Pakistani children aged 6 to 18 years
Muhammad Asif 1 ,Muhammad Aslam 2 ,Tariq Ismail 3 ,Akasha Rahman 2 ,Nasir Saleem 2
1 Department of Statistics, Govt. Degree College, Qadir Pur Raan, Multan, Pakistan
2 Department of Statistics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
3 Department of Institution of Food Science and Nutrition, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, Pakistan
DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2020.1714 Background. Head circumference (HC) measurement is a significant measure of brain volume. It is also considered a powerful predictor in the evaluation of developmental and neurological disorders in children. This study aims to develop smoothed reference curves for HC of the Pakistani children of age 6 to 18 years.

Methods. A cross-sectional dataset, consisting of 9194 school-going children of age 6-18 years, were obtained using a multi-ethnic anthropometric survey. For the measurement of HC (cm), the standard procedure was adopted. For both sexes, the smoothed centile curves of HC were developed by using the lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) statistical approach. Moreover, we compared our 50th percentile curves to those produced for few other countries.

Results. The centiles curves of both sexes indicated that the HC increased with age. Until the age of 10 years, the boys had larger HC percentiles than those of the girls. From the age of 11 years, upper percentiles (90th, 95th and 97th) of the girls were higher than those of the boys. The comparison of our 50th percentile data for the HC with the data from the United States (US) and Turkish children revealed that the Pakistani children of both genders had smaller head sizes in all ages when compared to those reported for the latter stated countries.

Conclusions. Our results show the larger disparity of HC percentiles in different countries. This comprehensive study suggests that the references from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention data and other populations are not suitable for Pakistani children. Therefore, each country is required to create its own HC reference curves, separately. Keywords : head circumference, lambda-mu-sigma method, Pakistani children, growth reference curves

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