The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2020 , Vol 62 , Num 6
Is being small for gestational age a risk factor for strabismus and refractive errors at 3 years of age?
İkbal Seza Petriçli 1 ,Caner Kara 1 ,Ayşegül Arman 2
1 Department of Ophthalmology, Etlik Zübeyde Hanim Women’s Health Training and Research Hospital, AnkaraTurkey
2 Department of Ophthalmology, Bilkent City Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2020.06.017 Background. Visual problems, cerebral visual impairment, refractive errors and strabismus are commonly found in preterm infants in long-term follow-ups. The aim of this study was to determine the factors that lead to the development of amblyogenic risk factors, such as high refractive errors, anisometropia and strabismus, in the long-term evaluation of preterm infants.

Methods. We retrospectively evaluated children who were screened for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and who had a 3rd year ophthalmologic examination. The impacts of sex, gestational age (GA), birth weight (BW), BW for GA, being small for gestational age (SGA), being appropriate for gestational age (AGA), multiple pregnancies and the results of ROP screening on refractive errors and the development of strabismus were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The SGA and AGA groups were compared in terms of refractive errors and presence of strabismus.

Results. Six hundred and eight children, including 317 (52.1%) males and 291 (47.9%) females, were included in the study. The mean GA was 31 ± 3 weeks (24-36), and the mean BW was 1505 ± 435 g (600-2460). The number of SGA-born children was 101 (16.6%). Manifest deviation was detected in 42 (5.6%) children, and optical correction was required in 101 (16.6%) children. Being an SGA infant and multiple pregnancies were risk factors for refractive errors requiring optical correction, and hyperopia (≥3.00 D) was found to be a risk factor for the development of strabismus in the multivariate regression analysis. Additionally, the SGA group was at high risk for strabismus, hyperopia, high astigmatism and the need for optical correction.

Conclusions. We concluded that SGA seems to be associated with an increased risk of strabismus and a high refractive error. It should be taken into consideration during follow-up examinations of SGA infants. Keywords : premature, retinopathy of prematurity, refractive error, small for gestational age, strabismus

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