The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2015 , Vol 57 , Num 3
An Easily Missed Diagnosis: 17-Alpha-Hydroxylase/17,20-Lyase Deficiency
Divisions of 1Pediatric Endocrinology and 2Pediatric Nephrology, Department of Pediatrics, Istanbul University, Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.
The CYP17A1 gene encodes the enzyme P450c17, which mediates both 17α-hydroxylase and 17,20-lyase activities and is essential for production of cortisol and sex steroids. Loss-of-function mutations of this gene cause 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, characterized by hypertension, hypokalemia and sexual infantilism.

A 6-year-old phenotypically female patient presented with hypertension and hyperpigmentation. Her blood test results showed low cortisol and high adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), progesterone, deoxycorticosterone and gonadotropin levels and were consistent with the diagnosis of 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency. Her karyotype was 46XY. Genetic studies of the patient revealed a novel homozygous point mutation, c.1307G>A, within the coding sequence of the CYP17A1 gene.

17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hypertension in children and adolescents, and physical examination of these patients should be done very carefully. Keywords : 17α-hydroxylase/17,20-lyase deficiency, CYP17A1 gene, disorders of sex development.

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