The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2023 , Vol 65 , Num 5
The effect of granulocyte colony stimulating factor on genotoxicity in allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation donors: a prospective case-control study
Hasan Fatih Çakmaklı 1 ,Hafize Gökçe 1 ,Esma Söylemez 2 ,Pervin Topçuoğlu 3 ,Zeliha Kayaaltı 4 ,Dilber Talia İleri 1
1 Department of Pediatric Hematology, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara
2 Department of Pharmaceutical Toxicology, İstanbul Medipol University School of Pharmacy, İstanbul
3 Department of Hematology, Ankara University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara
4 Institute of Forensic Sciences, Ankara University, Ankara, Türkiye
DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2023.469 Background. Every year, thousands of donors are exposed to granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) for stem cell mobilization in hematopoietic stem cell transplantations (HSCT). Previous studies about the genotoxicity of G-CSF were inconclusive. In this study, the genotoxic effects of G-CSF in peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) donors were evaluated prospectively by using three different validated and reliable methods for the first time in the literature to the best of our knowledge.

Methods. Donors of PBSC transplantation (n=36), who received G-CSF were evaluated for genotoxicity by micronucleus test (MNT), nuclear division index (NDI), and comet assay (CA). Genotoxic effects are expected to cause an increase in MNT and CA values and decrease in NDI. Blood samples were collected at three timepoints (TP): before starting G-CSF (TP1), after G-CSF for five days (TP2), and one month after the last dose (TP3). Sixteen controls were included for baseline comparison of genotoxicity tests. CD34 cell counts and hemograms were also analyzed.

Results. MNT and CA parameters; comet and tail length, tail DNA%, and tail moment, showed no change in time whereas another CA parameter, Olive`s tail moment (OTM) was increased significantly at TP3 compared to both baseline and TP2 (p=0.002 and p=0.017, respectively). Nuclear division index decreased significantly at TP2 (p<0.001), then increased above baseline at TP3 (p=0.004). Baseline comparison with controls showed higher MN frequency in donors without statistical significance (p=0.059). Whereas, CA results were significantly higher in controls. CD34 cell count showed moderate positive correlation with white blood cell count at TP2 (Pearson R=0.495, p=0.004).

Conclusions. Our results showed the genotoxic effect of G-CSF in healthy donors, in two of the three tests performed, short-term effect in NDI, and long-lasting effect in OTM. So, this study provides novel information for the debate about the genotoxicity of G-CSF and supports the need for further studies with a larger sample size and longer follow-up. Keywords : peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, comet assay, micronucleus tests, genotoxicity tests, hematopoietic stem cell mobilization, hematopoietic stem cell donor, tissue donor

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