The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2018 , Vol 60 , Num 6
Complications of cardiac catheterization in children with congenital heart disease
Kürşat Tokel 1 ,Ayten Gümüş 1 ,Canan Ayabakan 2 ,Birgül Varan 1 ,İlkay Erdoğan 1
1 Departments of Pediatric Cardiology, Baskent University Ankara Hospital, Ankara, Turkey
2 Departments of Pediatric Cardiology, Başkent University İstanbul Health and Training Hospital, İstanbul, Turkey
DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2018.06.008 Tokel K, Gümüş A, Ayabakan C, Varan B, Erdoğan İ. Complications of cardiac catheterization in children with congenital heart disease. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 675-683. Catheterization procedures for congenital heart disease include a broad range of procedures with a large spectrum of potential adverse outcomes. We aimed to determine the incidence of various complications during pediatric cardiac catheterizations and to designate the relative risk factors for such complications. All pediatric patients undergoing cardiac catheterizations between January 2005-December 2010 were included. Data are collected prospectively by filling out computerized catheterization reports. Patient records were scanned for potential risk factors retrospectively. Groups were divided based on cardiac diagnosis; type of procedure. Adverse events were categorized into major or minor events. A total of 2662 cardiac catheterizations were performed during this period. The mean age of patients was 53.2±64.3 months. Diagnostic catheterizations were done for 1797 (67.5%) patients, and interventional procedures were done in 865 (32.5%) cases. Adverse events were observed in 688 patients (26%) during 941 procedures. Minor and major events were seen in 21.4% and 7.1% of the procedures respectively. Most frequent major complications were anesthesia related (6%), most frequent minor complications were vascular complications (45.2%). Complications were more frequent in younger patients (p=0.0001), during interventional procedures (p=0.0001). Thirteen patients died after a cardiac catheterization; they were younger and had longer procedures compared to those who survived (p=0.0001). Vascular complications were frequent among younger patients, with prolonged procedure time and vessel access (p<0.0001). Cyanotic patients had more complications (p<0.05; OR for major and minor complications: 3.5 and 2 respectively). Minor complications were 2.7 times more likely in ventricular outflow obstructions (p<0.05). The complication rates of cardiac catheterization in children are low, but not negligible. Defining risk factors will help anticipate adverse events, which will guide in preparation for rescue procedures and improvement of patient safety systems in catheterization laboratories. Keywords : pediatric, catheterization, complications
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