The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics 2018 , Vol 60 , Num 5
Treatment of severe leptospirosis with therapeutic plasma exchange in a pediatric patient
Faruk Ekinci 1 ,R. Dinçer Yıldızdaş 1 ,Özden Özgür Horoz 1 ,Derya Alabaz 2 ,İlknur Tolunay 1 ,Ercüment Petmezci 1
1 Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
2 Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Çukurova University Faculty of Medicine, Adana, Turkey
DOI : 10.24953/turkjped.2018.05.015 Ekinci F, Yıldızdaş RD, Horoz ÖÖ, Alabaz D, Tolunay İ, Petmezci E. Treatment of severe leptospirosis with therapeutic plasma exchange in a pediatric patient. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 566-570.

Leptospirosis is a common zoonotic disease caused by spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. Although it is mostly a tropical disease, some case reports have been published from temperate regions of the world. The disease presents with a wide spectrum; from asymptomatic self limited disease to a fatal illness characterized by multi-organ involvement.

An 8-year-old girl presented with a 5-day history of fever, myalgia, fatigue, vomiting and diarrhea. She developed anuria, hypotension and became unconscious one day after admission and was referred to our pediatric intensive care unit for further evaluation and treatment. Initial physical examination revealed fever, jaundice, diffuse petecchiae on whole body, hepatomegaly and severe hypotension. Laboratory investigations showed elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin levels, elevated creatinine and creatine kinase levels and trombocytopenia. The diagnosis of Leptospirosis was detected by rapid IgM test and confirmed by microscopic agglutination test later. She was treated with mechanical ventilation, wide spectrum antibiotics, positive inotropic agents and penicillin G plus two days of continuous renal replacement therapy and five sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange performed daily. She recovered completely and was transferred to the pediatric ward on the 14th day of hospitalization.

The exact role of therapeutic plasma exchange has not been well documented yet, it seems to have benefical effects on clinical and laboratory findings and survival as we observed in our patient and learned from experiences in adult patients presented as case reports. Keywords : leptospirosis, multipl organ failure, therapeutic plasma exchange

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