Fetal sodium valproate exposure causes Baller-Gerold syndrome phenotype: both phenotypes in the same family
Özmert M.A. Özdemir1, İlknur Kılıç1, Tamer Özsarı1, B. Alper Kılıç2, Laurence Faivre3
Bernard Aral3, Dolunay Gürses1, C. Nur Semerci4
Departments of 1Pediatrics, 2Orthopedics and Traumatology, and 4Medical Biology, Pamukkale University Faculty of
Medicine, Denizli, Turkey, and 3Department of Genetics, CHU, Dijon, France
Baller-Gerold syndrome (BGS) is characterized by craniosynostosis and preaxial
upper-limb malformations, and it has an autosomal recessive inheritance.
Valproate syndrome occurs after exposure to valproic acid in utero, and
is characterized by trigonocephaly. Both syndromes can also present with
other malformations. Herein, we report a female newborn and her brother
who both had a history of fetal exposure to maternal anti-epileptic drugs,
especially sodium valproate. On physical examination of the female patient,
craniosynostosis, trigonocephaly, right radius aplasia and hypoplastic thumb,
and cardiac and renal malformations were determined, and she was diagnosed
with BGS phenotype. The brother’s examination revealed trigonocephaly,
polymastia and hypospadias, and he was diagnosed with valproate syndrome.
Based on these patients, we aimed to add further evidence in the literature
indicating that the use of sodium valproate alone and in combination with
other anti-epileptic drugs throughout pregnancy can increase the risk of
serious fetal congenital malformations depending on the doses.